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The prudent, value-adding culture of long-term investment has been crowded out by an aggressive, value-destroying culture of short-term speculation. In The Clash of the Cultures, he urges a return to the common sense principles of long-term investing. This book discusses Mr. Bogle's views on the changing culture in the mutual fund industry, how speculation has invaded our national retirement system, the failure of our institutional money managers to effectively participate in corporate governance, and the need for a federal standard of fiduciary duty. Bogle recounts the history of the index mutual fund, how he created it, and how exchange-traded index funds have altered its original concept of long-term investing.

The book concludes with ten simple rules that will help investors meet their financial goals. White Call Number: HB W45 Library West. The Clash of Economic Ideas interweaves the economic history of the last hundred years with the history of economic doctrines to understand how contrasting economic ideas have originated and developed over time to take their present forms.

It traces the connections running from historical events to debates among economists, and from the ideas of academic writers to major experiments in economic policy. The treatment offers fresh perspectives on laissez faire, socialism and fascism; the Roaring Twenties, business cycle theories and the Great Depression; Institutionalism and the New Deal; the Keynesian Revolution; and war, nationalization and central planning.

After , the work explores the postwar revival of invisible-hand ideas; economic development and growth, with special attention to contrasting policies and thought in Germany and India; the gold standard, the interwar gold-exchange standard, the postwar Bretton Woods system and the Great Inflation; public goods and public choice; free trade versus protectionism; and finally fiscal policy and public debt. K68 e-book MyiLibrary and Library West. The United States is bankrupt, flat broke.

Thanks to accounting that would make Enron blush, America's insolvency goes far beyond what our leaders are disclosing. The United States is in worse shape than the notoriously bailed-out countries of Greece, Ireland, and others. How did this happen? In The Clash of Generations, experts Laurence Kotlikoff and Scott Burns document our six-decade, off-balance-sheet, unsustainable financing scheme.

They explain how we have balanced our longer lives on the backs of our children. At the same time, we've been on a consumption spree, saving and investing less than nothing. And that's not to mention the evisceration of the middle class and a financial system that has proven it can't be trusted. Kotlikoff and Burns outline grassroots strategies for saving ourselves from what could be a truly catastrophic financial collapse.

Kotlikoff and Burns sounded the alarm in their widely acclaimed The Coming Generational Storm, but politicians didn't listen. Now the need for action is even more urgent. It's up to us to demand radical reform of our tax system, our healthcare system, and our Social Security system, and to insist on better paths to investment return than those provided by Wall Street mis managers.

Kotlikoff and Burns's "Purple Plans" so called because they will appeal to both Republicans and Democrats have been endorsed by a who's who of economists and offer a new way forward; and their revolutionary investment strategy for individuals replaces the idea of financial capital with "life decision capital. This no-bull, bottom-line guide from "The Reformed Broker" Josh Brown and Yahoo Finance's Jeff Macke will help you cut through the cacophony and make the most of today's media news. It's an eye-opening crash course in separating financial facts from fiction featuring interviews with some of the world's most influential investors, including: Jim Cramer Mad Money takes you behind the scenes of his polarizing TV program--and talks about his clash with Jon Stewart on The Daily Show.

Henry Blodget Business Insider shares anecdotes about tangling with Eliot Spitzer, covering the Martha Stewart trial, and launching his Business Insider site as a "marked man. You'll also find invaluable insights from the original father of financial TV, Jim Rogers, and from James Altucher, the most shockingly honest commentator in the history of the medium. Clash of the Financial Pundits is the one guide that will change the way you look at markets and investing forever.

Classics of Organizational Behavior by by Walter E. C53 Library West. The most important element in any organization is its people. By utilizing human talent effectively, all of an organization s other resources become much more feasibly managed. Recognizing this, the behavioral sciences have become an integral part of the field of management and the knowledge base of organizational behavior has proliferated. The forty readings collected in Classics of Organizational Behavior introduce readers to outstanding contributions to the professional literature of the discipline.

This insightful compilation provides broad coverage of over one hundred years of writings on all aspects of organizational behavior, including motivation; performance; interpersonal and group behavior; leadership; power; change and development; and the interaction between organizations, work processes, and people. G Library West. If your company is like most, it has a handful of people who generate disproportionate quantities of value: A researcher creates products that bankroll the entire organization for decades.

A manager spots consumer-spending patterns no one else sees and defines new market categories your enterprise can serve. A strategist anticipates global changes and correctly interprets their business implications. Companies' competitiveness, even survival, increasingly hinge on such "clever people. So how do you corral these players in your organization and inspire them to achieve their highest potential? Leading clever people can be enormously challenging, yet doing so effectively is the key to your organization's sustained success. Lively and engaging, this book provides the ideas, practices, and examples you need to create an environment where your most brilliant people can flourish.

Nordhaus Call Number: QC N Library West. Climate change is profoundly altering our world in ways that pose major risks to human societies and natural systems. We have entered the Climate Casino and are rolling the global-warming dice, warns economist William Nordhaus. But there is still time to turn around and walk back out of the casino, and in this essential book the author explains how.

Using language accessible to any concerned citizen and taking care to present different points of view fairly, he discusses the problem from start to finish: from the beginning, where warming originates in our personal energy use, to the end, where societies employ regulations or taxes or subsidies to slow the emissions of gases responsible for climate change. In short, he clarifies a defining problem of our times and lays out the next critical steps for slowing the trajectory of global warming. Weitzman Call Number: QC W34 Library West, On Order.

If you had a 10 percent chance of having a fatal car accident, you'd take necessary precautions. If your finances had a 10 percent chance of suffering a severe loss, you'd reevaluate your assets. So if we know the world is warming and there's a 10 percent chance this might eventually lead to a catastrophe beyond anything we could imagine, why aren't we doing more about climate change right now?

We insure our lives against an uncertain future--why not our planet? In Climate Shock, Gernot Wagner and Martin Weitzman explore in lively, clear terms the likely repercussions of a hotter planet, drawing on and expanding from work previously unavailable to general audiences. They show that the longer we wait to act, the more likely an extreme event will happen. A city might go underwater.

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A rogue nation might shoot particles into the Earth's atmosphere, geoengineering cooler temperatures. Zeroing in on the unknown extreme risks that may yet dwarf all else, the authors look at how economic forces that make sensible climate policies difficult to enact, make radical would-be fixes like geoengineering all the more probable. What we know about climate change is alarming enough. What we don't know about the extreme risks could be far more dangerous. Wagner and Weitzman help readers understand that we need to think about climate change in the same way that we think about insurance--as a risk management problem, only here on a global scale.

Demonstrating that climate change can and should be dealt with--and what could happen if we don't do so--Climate Shock tackles the defining environmental and public policy issue of our time. S44 Library West, On Order.

Tracking Joseph Kony - Africa's Most Elusive War Criminal

However grudgingly, most of us accept the expression "Money makes the world go round" as a universal truth. We are all aware of the power of money--how it influences our moods, compels us to take risks, and serves as the yardstick of success in societies around the world. Yet because we take the daily reality of money so completely for granted, we seldom question how and why it has come to play such a central role in our lives.

In Coined: The Rich Life of Money And How Its History Has Shaped Us, author Kabir Sehgal casts aside our workaday assumptions about money and takes the reader on a global quest to uncover a deeper understanding of the relationship between money and humankind.

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More than a mere history of its subject, Coined probes the conceptual origins and evolution of money by examining it through the multiple lenses of disciplines as varied as biology, psychology, anthropology, and theology. Coined is not only a profoundly informative discussion of the concept of money, but it is also an endlessly fascinating and entertaining take on the nature of humanity and the inner workings of the mind. The reality is, Silicon Valley capitalism is very simple: Investors are people with more money than time. Employees are people with more time than money. Entrepreneurs are the seductive go-between.

Marketing is like sex: only losers pay for it. Imagine a chimpanzee rampaging through a datacenter powering everything from Google to Facebook. He also fathered two children with a woman he barely knew, committed lewd acts and brewed illegal beer on the Facebook campus accidentally flooding Zuckerberg's desk , lived on a sailboat, raced sport cars on the , and enthusiastically pursued the life of an overpaid Silicon Valley wastrel.

Now, this gleeful contrarian unravels the chaotic evolution of social media and online marketing and reveals how it is invading our lives and shaping our future. Chaos Monkeys lays bare the hijinks, trade secrets, and power plays of the visionaries, grunts, sociopaths, opportunists, accidental tourists, and money cowboys who are revolutionizing our world. The question is, will we survive? Charlie Munger by Trenholme J. Griffin; Charles T.

Munger Call Number: HG Charlie Munger, Berkshire Hathaway's visionary vice chairman and Warren Buffett's indispensable financial partner, has outperformed market indexes again and again, and he believes any investor can do the same. His notion of "elementary, worldly wisdom"--a set of interdisciplinary mental models involving economics, business, psychology, ethics, and management--allows him to keep his emotions out of his investments and avoid the common pitfalls of bad judgment.

Munger's system has steered his investments for forty years and has guided generations of successful investors. This book presents the essential steps of Munger's investing strategy, condensed here for the first time from interviews, speeches, writings, and shareholder letters, and paired with commentary from fund managers, value investors, and business-case historians. Derived from Ben Graham's value-investing system, Munger's approach is straightforward enough that even novices can apply it to their portfolios.

This book is not simply about stock picking, it's about cultivating mental models for your whole life, but especially for your investments. Bogle Call Number: HG Vanguard Group founder and chair Bogle Bogle on Mutual Funds shares his classic ideas on how best to maximize investments in mutual funds, showing investors how to embrace simplicity and revolutionize their portfolios.

The world's largest no-load mutual fund group, Vanguard has risen to the top of the heap of fund companies, following Bogle's advice on such topics as tactical allocation, long-term investing, investment relativism, rapid turnover, owning the right number of funds, and selecting index funds. The opening primer on investment strategy and the author's preference for mutual funds for their inherent value is balanced with a keen perspective on his view of the need for a major redirection of the industry, making for a solid package.

The excellent narration by Grover Gardner guides serious listeners through this exemplary approach to investing in these funds. Highly recommended for all university libraries supporting a business curriculum and larger public libraries--Dale Farris, Groves, TX Copyright Cahners Business Information. S43 Library West. ISBN: Secondedition,PrincetonUniversityPress, p. The Company of Strangers shows us the remarkable strangeness, and fragility, of our everyday lives. This completely revised and updated edition includes a new chapter analyzing how the rise and fall of social trust explain the unsustainable boom in the global economy over the past decade and the financial crisis that succeeded it.

Drawing on insights from biology, anthropology, history, psychology, and literature, Paul Seabright explores how our evolved ability of abstract reasoning has allowed institutions like money, markets, cities, and the banking system to provide the foundations of social trust that we need in our everyday lives. Even the simple acts of buying food and clothing depend on an astonishing web of interaction that spans the globe.

How did humans develop the ability to trust total strangers with providing our most basic needs? Compassion, Inc. Marketing insider Mara Einstein demonstrates in this penetrating analysis why the answer is a resounding "No! She takes us through the unseen ways in which large sums of consumer dollars go into corporate coffers rather than helping the less fortunate.

She also discusses companies that truly do make the world a better place, and those that just pretend to. Duncan Call Number: HD C Library West, On Order. The foremost authority on innovation and growth presents a path-breaking book every company needs to transform innovation from a game of chance to one in which they develop products and services customers not only want to buy, but are willing to pay premium prices for. How do companies know how to grow? How can they create products that they are sure customers want to buy?

Can innovation be more than a game of hit and miss? Harvard Business School professor Clayton Christensen has the answer. A generation ago, Christensen revolutionized business with his groundbreaking theory of disruptive innovation. Now, he goes further, offering powerful new insights. After years of research, Christensen has come to one critical conclusion: our long held maxim—that understanding the customer is the crux of innovation—is wrong.

Understanding customers does not drive innovation success, he argues. Understanding customer jobs does. Jobs theory offers new hope for growth to companies frustrated by their hit and miss efforts. A3 C Library West. Corporate managers who face both strategic uncertainty and market uncertainty confront a classic trade-off between commitment and flexibility. They can stake a claim by making a large capital investment today, influencing their rivals' behavior; or they can take a "wait and see" approach to avoid adverse market consequences tomorrow.

Benoit Chevalier-Roignant and Lenos Trigeorgis describe an emerging paradigm that can quantify and balance commitment and flexibility, "option games," by which the decision-making approaches of real options and game theory can be combined. The authors discuss prerequisite concepts and tools from basic game theory, industrial organization, and real options analysis, bringing important materials and ideas together into a unified framework.

The ups and downs of Downing Street

They present the new approach in discrete time and later in continuous time, beginning with the building blocks of the basic ideas and tools and culminating in richer theoretical analyses. Their presentation of continuous-time option games is the first systematic coverage of the topic and fills a significant gap in the existing literature.

Competitive Strategy provides a rigorous yet pragmatic and intuitive approach to strategy formulation. It synthesizes research in the areas of strategy, economics, and finance in a way that is accessible to readers not necessarily expert in the various fields involved. The book will be of interest to scholars, students, and academically trained practicing managers interested in applying these ideas. S39 Library West, Pre-Order.

Spanning everything from technical analysis, trading systems, and fundamental analysis to options, spreads, and practical trading principles, A Complete Guide is required reading for any trader or investor who wants to successfully navigate the futures market. Clear, concise, and to the point, this fully revised and updated second edition provides a solid foundation in futures market basics, details key analysis and forecasting techniques, explores advanced trading concepts, and illustrates the practical application of these ideas with hundreds of market examples.

A Complete Guide to the Futures Market: Details different trading and analytical approaches, including chart analysis, technical indicators and trading systems, regression analysis, and fundamental market models. Separates misleading market myths from reality. Gives step-by-step instruction for developing and testing original trading ideas and systems. Illustrates a wide range of option strategies, and explains the trading implications of each.

Details a wealth of practical trading guidelines and market insights from a recognized trading authority.

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Trading futures without a firm grasp of this market's realities and nuances is a recipe for losing money. Benello; Tobias E. Carlisle Call Number: HG B Library West, On Order. Discover the secrets of the world's top concentrated value investors Concentrated Investing: Strategies of the World's Greatest Concentrated Value Investors chronicles the virtually unknown--but wildly successful--value investors who have regularly and spectacularly blown away the results of even the world's top fund managers.

Sharing the insights of these top value investors, expert authors Allen Benello, Michael van Biema, and Tobias Carlisle unveil the strategies that make concentrated value investing incredibly profitable, while at the same time showing how to mitigate risk over time. Highlighting the history and approaches of four top value investors, the authors tell the fascinating story of the investors who dare to tread where few others have, and the wildly-successful track records that have resulted.

Turning the notion of diversification on its head, concentrated value investors pick a small group of undervalued stocks and hold onto them through even the lean years. The approach has been championed by Warren Buffett, the best known value investor of our time, but a small group of lesser-known investors has also used this approach to achieve outstanding returns.

Discover the success of Lou Simpson, a former GEICO investment manager and eventual successor to Warren Buffett at Berkshire Hathaway Read about Kristian Siem, described as "Norway's Warren Buffett," and the success he has had at Siem Industries Concentrated Investing will quickly have you re-thinking the conventional wisdom related to diversification and learning from the top concentrated value investors the world has never heard of.

Moss Call Number: HB M68 Library West. Harvard Business School Press, Now more than ever before, executives and managers need to understand their larger economic context. In A Concise Guide to Macroeconomics, David Moss leverages his many years of teaching experience at Harvard Business School to lay out important macroeconomic concepts in engaging, clear, and concise terms. In a simple and intuitive way, he breaks down the ideas into "output," "money," and "expectations.

Detailed examples are also drawn from history to illuminate important concepts. This book is destined to become a staple in MBA courses-as well as the go-to resource for executives and managers at all levels seeking to brush up on their knowledge of macroeconomic dynamics.

N Library West, On Order. Ever since the financial crisis of , doubts have been raised about the future of capitalism. In this broad-ranging survey of financial capitalism from antiquity to the present, Larry Neal reveals the ways in which the financial innovations throughout history have increased trade and prosperity as well as improving standards of living.

These innovations have, however, all too often led to financial crises as a result of the failure of effective coordination among banks, capital markets and governments. The book examines this key interrelationship between financial innovation, government regulation and financial crises across three thousand years, showing through past successes and failures the key factors that underpin any successful recovery and sustain economic growth.

The result is both an essential introduction to financial capitalism and also a series of workable solutions that will help both to preserve the gains we have already achieved and to mitigate the dangers of future crises. Cohen; J. C64 Library West, On Order. History, not ideology, holds the key to growth. This book does not rehash the sturdy and long-accepted arguments that to thrive, entrepreneurial economies need a broad range of freedoms.

Instead, Steve Cohen and Brad DeLong remedy our national amnesia about how our economy has actually grown and the role government has played in redesigning and reinvigorating it throughout our history. The government not only sets the ground rules for entrepreneurial activity but directs the surges of energy that mark a vibrant economy.

This is as true for present-day Silicon Valley as it was for New England manufacturing at the dawn of the nineteenth century. Instead it is based on the facts--facts that were once well known but that have been obscured in a fog of ideology--of how the US economy benefited from a pragmatic government approach to succeed so brilliantly. Understanding how our economy has grown in the past provides a blueprint for how we might again redesign and reinvigorate it today, for such a redesign is sorely needed.

K66 Library West, Pre-Order. A compelling investigation into the minds, motives, and methods of con artists--and the people who fall for their cons over and over again. While cheats and swindlers may be a dime a dozen, true conmen--the Bernie Madoffs, the Jim Bakkers, the Lance Armstrongs--are elegant, outsized personalities, artists of persuasion and exploiters of trust.

How do they do it? Why are they successful? And what keeps us falling for it, over and over again? These are the questions that journalist and psychologist Maria Konnikova tackles in her mesmerizing new book. From multimillion-dollar Ponzi schemes to small-time frauds, Konnikova pulls together a selection of fascinating stories to demonstrate what all cons share in common, drawing on scientific, dramatic, and psychological perspectives. Insightful and gripping, the book brings readers into the world of the con, examining the relationship between artist and victim.

Call Number: HJ For ten boom-powered years at the turn of the twenty-first century, some of America's most prominent law and accounting firms created and marketed products that enabled the very rich -- including newly minted dot-com millionaires -- to avoid paying their fair share of taxes by claiming benefits not recognized by law. They brought in hundreds of millions of dollars in fees from clients and bilked the U. Treasury of billions in revenues before the IRS and Justice Department stepped in with civil penalties and criminal prosecutions. In Confidence Games, Tanina Rostain and Milton Regan describe the rise and fall of the tax shelter industry during this period, offering a riveting account of the most serious episode of professional misconduct in the history of the American bar.

Rostain and Regan describe a beleaguered IRS preoccupied by attacks from antitax and antigovernment politicians; heightened competition for professional services; the relaxation of tax practitioner norms against aggressive advice; and the creation of complex financial instruments that made abusive shelters harder to detect. By , the tax shelter boom was over, leaving failed firms, disgraced professionals, and prison sentences in its wake.

Rostain and Regan's cautionary tale remains highly relevant today, as lawyers and accountants continue to face intense competitive pressure and regulators still struggle to keep pace with accelerating financial risk and innovation. S87 Library West. The hidden history of Wall Street and the White House comes down to a single, powerful, quintessentially American concept: confidence.

Both centers of power, tapping brazen innovations over the past three decades, learned how to manufacture it. Until August , when that confidence finally began to crumble. Wall Street found that straying from long-standing principles of transparency, accountability, and fair dealing opened a path to stunning profits. He would now have to command Washington, tame New York, and rescue the economy in the first real management job of his life.

The new president surrounded himself with a team of seasoned players—like Rahm Emanuel, Larry Summers, and Tim Geithner—who had served a different president in a different time. Bitter disputes—between men and women, policy and politics—ruled the day. Pulitzer Prize—winning journalist Ron Suskind introduces readers to the titans of high finance to a new generation of reformers. K Library West, On Order. With the fall of the Berlin Wall, one economic modelemerged triumphant.

Capitalism - spanning a spectrumfrom laissez faire to authoritarian - shapes the market economies of all the wealthiest and fastest-growing nations. But trouble is cracking its shiny veneer. In the U. Wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few; natural re sources are exploited for short-term profit; and good jobs are hard to find. With piercing clarity, Philip Kotler explains 14 major problems undermining capitalism, including persistent poverty, job creation in the face of automation, high debt burdens, the disproportionate influence of the wealthy on public policy, steep environmental costs, boom-bust economic cycles, and more.

Amidst its dire assessment of what's ailing us, Confronting Capitalism delivers a heartening message: We can turn things around. Movements toward shared prosperity and a higher purpose are reinvigorating companies large and small, while proposals abound on government policies that offer protections without stagnation. Kotler identifies the best ideas, linking private and public initiatives into a force for positive change. Combining economic history, expert insight, business lessons, and recent data, this landmark book elucidates today's critical dilemmas and suggests solutions for returning to a healthier, more sustainable Capitalism - that works for all.

Christakis and James H. Fowler Call Number: HM C46 Library West. The Internet age has provoked some quips that Andy Warhol's "in the future, everyone will be famous for fifteen minutes" has been superseded by "in the future, everyone will be famous for fifteen people. In Connected, versatile Harvard scientist Nicholas Christakis and University of California political science professor James Fowler make a compelling case that social networks hold powerful influence over our health, taste, wealth, happiness, beliefs, and even our weight.

Never have contagions been so entertaining. Cross Call Number: HC Nostalgia isn't what it used to be. For many of us, modern memory is shaped less by a longing for the social customs and practices of the past or for family heirlooms handed down over generations and more by childhood encounters with ephemeral commercial goods and fleeting media moments in our age of fast capitalism. This phenomenon has given rise to communities of nostalgia whose members remain loyal to the toys, television, and music of their youth. They return to the theme parks and pastimes of their upbringing, hoping to reclaim that feeling of childhood wonder or teenage freedom.

Consumed nostalgia took definite shape in the s, spurred by an increase in the turnover of consumer goods, the commercialization of childhood, and the skillful marketing of nostalgia. Gary Cross immerses readers in this fascinating and often delightful history, unpacking the cultural dynamics that turn pop tunes into oldies and childhood toys into valuable commodities.

He compares the limited appeal of heritage sites such as Colonial Williamsburg to the perpetually attractive power of a Disney theme park and reveals how consumed nostalgia shapes how we cope with accelerating change. Today nostalgia can be owned, collected, and easily accessed, making it less elusive and often more fun than in the past, but its commercialization has sometimes limited memory and complicated the positive goals of recollection.

By unmasking the fascinating, idiosyncratic character of modern nostalgia, Cross helps us better understand the rituals of recall in an age of fast capitalism. S18 Library West. In this highly informative and entertaining book, Dr. Gad Saad, the founder of the vibrant new field of evolutionary consumption, illuminates the relevance of our biological heritage to our daily lives as consumers.

While culture is important, Dr. Saad shows that innate evolutionary forces deeply influence the foods we eat, the gifts we offer, the cosmetics and clothing styles we choose to make ourselves more attractive to potential mates, and even the cultural products that stimulate our imaginations such as art, music, and religion. The Consuming Instinct demonstrates that most acts of consumption can be mapped onto four key Darwinian drives—namely, survival we prefer foods high in calories ; reproduction we use products as sexual signals ; kin selection we naturally exchange gifts with family members ; and reciprocal altruism we enjoy offering gifts to close friends.

For anyone interested in the biological basis of human behavior or simply in what makes consumers tick—marketing professionals, advertisers, psychology mavens, and consumers themselves—The Consuming Instinct is a fascinating read. What makes things popular? If you said advertising, think again.

But why do people talk about certain products and ideas more than others? Why are some stories and rumors more infectious? And what makes online content go viral? Wharton marketing professor Jonah Berger has spent the last decade answering these questions. Berger reveals the secret science behind word-of-mouth and social transmission. Discover how six basic principles drive all sorts of things to become contagious.

This book provides a set of specific, actionable techniques for helping information spread—for designing messages, advertisements, and information that people will share. Wolff; Stephen A. Resnick Call Number: HB W65 e-book MyiLibrary. Contending Economic Theories offers a unique comparative treatment of the three main theories in economics as it is taught today: neoclassical, Keynesian,and Marxian. The authors identify each theory's starting point, its goals and foci, and its internal logic. They connect their comparative theory analysis to the larger policy issues that divide the rival camps of theorists around such central issues as the role government should play in the economy and the class structure of production, stressing the different analytical, policy, and social decisions that flow from each theory's conceptualization of economics.

The authors, building on their earlier book Economics: Marxian versus Neoclassical, offer an expanded treatment of Keynesian economics and a comprehensive introduction to Marxian economics, including its class analysis of society. Beyond providing asystematic explanation of the logic and structure of standard neoclassical theory, they analyzerecent extensions and developments of that theory around such topics as market imperfections,information economics, new theories of equilibrium, and behavioral economics, considering whetherthese advances represent new paradigms or merely adjustments to the standard theory.

They alsoexplain why economic reasoning has varied among these three approaches throughout the twentiethcentury, and why this variation continues today--as neoclassical views give way to new Keynesianapproaches in the wake of the economic collapse of Heilbroner's The Worldly Philosophers to get students excited about economics. Today I would use John T. Harvey's Contending Perspectives in Economics. The book is beautifully written and full of insights into who economists are and why they think the way they do.

Bush, California State University, USThis accessible book provides a non-technical yet rigorous introduction to the various competing schools of thought in economics including Neoclassical, Marxist, Austrian, Post Keynesian, Institutionalist, New Institutionalist, and Feminist. The unique features of each approach are highlighted, complemented by discussions of methodology, world views, popular themes, and current activities. Importantly, the book also examines common criticisms and how each school responds.

In the interest of preserving balance and accuracy, every chapter covering a heterodox school of thought has been vetted by an acknowledged expert in that particular field. Though written for use in undergraduate courses, this guide will no doubt offer a great deal to any scholar wishing to gain a fresh perspective and greater understanding of the variety and breadth of current economic thinking. Anand Call Number: HB A Library West, On Order.

Companies everywhere face two major challenges today: getting noticed and getting paid. To confront these obstacles, Bharat Anand examines a range of businesses around the world, from The New York Times to The Economist, from Chinese Internet giant Tencent to Scandinavian digital trailblazer Schibsted, and from talent management to the future of education. Drawing on these stories and on the latest research in economics, strategy, and marketing, this refreshingly engaging book reveals important lessons, smashes celebrated myths, and reorients strategy. Success for flourishing companies comes not from making the best content but from recognizing how content enables customers' connectivity; it comes not from protecting the value of content at all costs but from unearthing related opportunities close by; and it comes not from mimicking competitors' best practices but from seeing choices as part of a connected whole.

Digital change means that everyone today can reach and interact with others directly: We are all in the content business. But that comes with risks that Bharat Anand teaches us how to recognize and navigate. Filled with conversations with key players and in-depth dispatches from the front lines of digital change, The Content Trap is an essential new playbook for navigating the turbulent waters in which we find ourselves. Advance praise for The Content Trap "As Bharat Anand shows in this eminently readable book, connections are now more important than content.

His insights will bring you several steps closer to understanding the digital revolution and how you can avoid its many perils. This revolution has been twenty years in the making, and Bharat Anand makes the past and the future a lot more clear. The Content Trap is both a delight to read and the essential book for understanding today's digital revolution. In the process, Anand debunks the conventional wisdom time and time again; his insights are sharp, perceptive, and strikingly original.

Roland Christensen Professor of Business Administration, Harvard Business School "'Content is king' may once have been true, but favoring content over connections will only get you dethroned today. In clear and compelling prose, Anand shows us how to lay the strategy groundwork to thrive in an increasingly connected world. Understanding the Content Trap is the true solution to your digital dilemma! C5 D94 Library West. A balanced and far-seeing analysis of the emerging competition between China and the United States that will dominate twenty-first-century world affairs--an inside account of Beijing's quest for influence and an explanation of how America can come out on top.

After decades of rising, China has entered a new and critical phase where it seeks to turn its economic heft into global power. Geoff Dyer makes a lucid and convincing argument that China and the United States are now embarking on a great power-style competition that will dominate the century. This contest will take place in every arena: from control of the seas, where China's new navy is trying to ease the United States out of Asia and reassert its traditional leadership, to rewriting the rules of the global economy, with attempts to turn the renminbi into the predominant international currency, toppling the dominance of the U.

And by investing billions to send its media groups overseas, Beijing hopes to shift the global debate about democracy and individual rights. China is taking the first steps in an ambitious global agenda. Yet Dyer explains how China will struggle to unseat the United States. China's new ambitions are provoking intense anxiety, especially in Asia, while America's global influence has deep roots. If Washington can adjust to a world in which it is no longer dominant but still immensely powerful, it can withstand China's challenge. The Contest of the Century is essential reading at a time of great uncertainty about America's future, a road map for retaining a central role in the world.

Q37 Library West, On Order. If you have ever wondered why SUVs replaced minivans, how one rap song turned the cognac industry upside down, or what gives Levi's jeans their iconic allure, look no further-in Cool, Steven Quartz and Anette Asp finally explain the fascinating science behind unexpected trends and enduring successes.

We live in a world of conspicuous consumption, where the clothes we wear, the cars we drive, and the food we eat lead double lives: they don't merely satisfy our needs; they also communicate our values, identities, and aspirations. In Beverly Hills, tourists flock to the famous Rodeo Drive-not to shop, but simply to take photographs of themselves in front of luxury stores. And for one week in August, hundreds of thousands of HarleyDavidson fans from all over the world descend on the remote town of Sturgis, South Dakota, and engulf the otherwise sleepy hamlet in the deafening roar of motorcycle engines.

Why do brands inspire such devotion? Quartz and Asp bring together groundbreaking findings in neuroscience, economics, and evolutionary biology to present a new understanding of why we consume and how our concepts of what is "cool"-be it designer jeans, smartphones, or craft beer-help drive the global economy. The authors highlight the underlying neurological and cultural processes that contribute to our often unconscious decision making, explaining how we're able to navigate the supermarket on autopilot for certain items and yet arrive at the checkout counter with a basket full of products picked up on the spur of the moment.

And they explore the opposite side of the consumer equation-the "choice architects" who design store interiors and the "coolhunters" who scour Berlin and Tokyo on the lookout for the latest trends. Through a novel combination of cultural and economic history and in-depth studies of the brain, Cool puts forth a provocative theory of consumerism that reveals the crucial missing links in an understanding of our spending habits: our brain's status-seeking "social calculator" and an instinct to rebel that fuels our dislike of being subordinated by others.

Quartz and Asp show how these ancient motivations make us natural-born consumers and how they sparked the emergence of "cool consumption"in the middle of the twentieth century, creating new lifestyle choices and routes to happiness. Examining how cool was reshaped in the s by a changing society and the Internet, they unpack the social motivations behind today's hip, ethical consumption, arguing that we should embrace, rather than deny, the power of consumerism. Taking us from Norman Mailer to normcore, Cool is surprising at every turn, and will forever change the way you think about money, status, desire, happiness, and choice.

Why do humans, uniquely among animals, cooperate in large numbers to advance projects for the common good? Contrary to the conventional wisdom in biology and economics, this generous and civic-minded behavior is widespread and cannot be explained simply by far-sighted self-interest or a desire to help close genealogical kin.

In A Cooperative Species, Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis—pioneers in the new experimental and evolutionary science of human behavior—show that the central issue is not why selfish people act generously, but instead how genetic and cultural evolution has produced a species in which substantial numbers make sacrifices to uphold ethical norms and to help even total strangers. The authors describe how, for thousands of generations, cooperation with fellow group members has been essential to survival. Groups that created institutions to protect the civic-minded from exploitation by the selfish flourished and prevailed in conflicts with less cooperative groups.

Key to this process was the evolution of social emotions such as shame and guilt, and our capacity to internalize social norms so that acting ethically became a personal goal rather than simply a prudent way to avoid punishment. A Cooperative Species provides a compelling and novel account of how humans came to be moral and cooperative. Schein Call Number: HD S Library West. New and revised edition, Jossey-Bass, This is the definitive guide to corporate culture for practitioners. Recognized expert Edgar H. Schein explains what culture is and why it's important, how to evaluate your organization's culture, and how to improve it, using straightforward, practical tools based on decades of research and real-world case studies.

This new edition reflects the massive changes in the business world over the past ten years, exploring the influence of globalization, new technology, and mergers on culture and organization change. New case examples help illustrate the principals at work and bring focus to emerging issues in international, nonprofit, and government organizations as well as business.

Organized around the questions that change agents most often ask, this new edition of the classic book will help anyone from line managers to CEOs assess their culture and make it more effective. G72 Library West, On Order. It is estimated that there are more than national and international business-led corporate responsibility coalitions.

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S85 Library West. Of the 15 cases of sexual violence documented by Human Rights Watch during this time, six took place during such periods. Most of those targeted appeared to have been singled out on the basis of their ethnicity, nationality, or perceived affiliation with rebel and opposition groups. Those implicated in acts of sexual violence include members of the official armed forces and law enforcement institutions, numerous pro-government armed militias, and pro-government youth groups. The security forces associated with human rights violations include the gendarmes, who have the mandate for law and order in a district typically in more rural areas ; the police, who maintain law and order in towns; and the National Armed Forces of Cote d'Ivoire Forces armes nationales de Cote d'Ivoire , FANCI , which regroups the army, air force, and navy.

Since the outbreak of hostilities in , urban and rural militias have played an increasingly active role in matters of national security, including manning checkpoints on main roads in government-controlled areas, checking civilian identification, and generally taking on tasks usually carried out by uniformed government security forces. Militia leaders claim that they are at the vanguard of forces defending the government, compensating for an army that has been split along ethnic and regional lines since the rebellion.

Most of the recruits for the western militias come from the Gur, Bt, Attie, Abey, and Dida ethnic groups, or their allies in the west, or from the W and Krou tribes. In and at various times since, the government recruited and used Liberian mercenaries, including children, to fight alongside militias and government armed forces, especially in the southwest. Victims and witnesses interviewed by Human Rights Watch were not always able to identify the particular armed group responsible for the sexual abuse they suffered.

Sexual abuse from onwards was often carried out in situations of extreme chaos by men dressed in civilian clothing, in irregular and dissimilar uniforms, or in uniforms lacking identifiable insignia. During and , Liberian mercenaries, civilian militias, and official government security forces cooperated to retake towns and territory from rebels. Human Rights Watch was repeatedly told that since the beginning of the war, many of the gendarmes and police also donned military fatigues. Without uniforms, often without clear leadership or ranks, and without open links to the government, the identity of these armed men could be difficult to determine.

As a result, many victims and witnesses interviewed for this report could only describe their attackers as "men dressed in uniform," "the men of the government," or "loyalists. The most concentrated period of sexual abuse against women and girls by pro-government troops took place during the period of active hostilities from September through mid , and in areas where the battles were the fiercest, most notably in the west and southwest. While ethnically based militias and government troops were implicated, Liberian mercenaries were the pro-government fighters most often associated with some of the worst violations, including sexual abuse.

The president of a women's association, who was also a traditional healer and had treated many women raped and gang raped by pro-government forces, spoke of the violence by those groups in the battle for the western town of Man. The abuses took place at some point between December 1 and 18, , when government forces recaptured Man from rebels.

Midwives, nurses and social workers and confidential reports from local and international organizations operating in the western towns of Man, Blolequin and Toulepleu provided Human Rights Watch with information about dozens of rapes and other forms of sexual abuse by pro-government troops during and According to victims, witnesses, and aid workers, combatants from militias comprised of men from the Gur ethnic group-active in the southwest near Guiglo-were allegedly implicated in numerous human rights violations, including sexual violence, killings, physical abuse, extortion, and harassment.

The Gur militias appear to have targeted in particular West African immigrants, in and , including those from Burkina Faso and Mali. Rapes by pro-government forces often took place in the context of other egregious human rights violations. Interviewees described to Human Rights Watch how armed men carried out rapes together with other abuses including extortion, beatings, torture, and killings. For instance, one Muslim woman of Burkinab background explained to Human Rights Watch how early in the war her community, near the border town of Zouan-Hounien, suffered a number of atrocities including sexual violence at the hands of "Loyalists.

Many acts of sexual violence appear to have taken place during organized campaigns of violence by pro-government forces, designed to force " allognes " foreigners off their lands. Thus, for a number of victims and witnesses, acts of sexual violence were often part of a pattern of broader suffering and loss these communities experienced: villages or homes burned, possessions stolen, and family and friends killed. However, it appeared that the inter-ethnic fighting and attacks over plantations in the southwest were more characterized by extreme physical violence than specifically by sexual violence.

Moreover, not all local leaders and militias in government-held territories engaged in or condoned sexual and other violence against foreigners and Muslims. Indeed, some local leaders resisted the tide of xenophobia sweeping government-held areas and refused to join or allow ethnically or religiously motivated persecution. One woman described to Human Rights Watch how she believed that her community was spared inter-ethnic violence and sexual targeting of Burkinab and other migrant women because of her traditional chief's refusal to condone such abuses during the war.

Politicians in power from President Bdi to President Gbagbo developed and promoted the notion of Ivoirit , often using propaganda to manipulate social imagination and to foster divisions between two groups: Ivorians who belonged and whose citizenship was beyond doubt, and those people of dubious Ivorian citizenship, who could be reclassified as outsiders. At first, making this distinction appeared to be aimed at marginalizing current or future political rivals from political life. As the notion of Ivoirit gained traction and deepened rifts between ethnic groups, supporters of the RDR political party were progressively targeted as enemies of the government, alongside those perceived to support them: people from the north, Muslims, Dioulas, and foreigners, especially Burkinabs and Malians.

Once the war broke out in , this polemic adopted a further interpretation relating to national security. The former cabinet head for the police chief of staff Chef de Cabinet du Directeur de la Police , who is currently the Korhogo Police Prefect, told Human Rights Watch of numerous cases of sexual abuse against Dioula, Muslim, and foreign women by police officers.

He described how his efforts to sanction police officers accused of rape from to were frustrated, and how, to the best of his knowledge, none of the alleged perpetrators within the police were ever punished:. From to the present, abuses at checkpoints by pro-government forces against Dioulas frequently turn routine travel into a nightmare for many women. Although extortion and physical violence remained the most common forms of abuse, armed men at pro-government checkpoints subjected women and girls to numerous forms of sexual abuse, including strip searching, sexual humiliation, rape, gang-rape and other abuse.

One girl described how she saw gendarmes sexually humiliating and mistreating a Dioula woman in at an Abidjan checkpoint after accusing her of supporting the rebels:. The girl told Human Rights Watch that the police shouted at their victim that she was a Dioula, and that the war "is the fault of your people. Several women leaders from the RDR opposition party told Human Rights Watch that they regularly received reports from RDR women members most of whom have Muslim-sounding names of sexual harassment, and slurs or verbal threats which made reference to their ethnic or national identity.

They believed the strip searches, sexual humiliation, and vaginal searches took place more frequently at checkpoints in predominantly Muslim neighborhoods in Abidjan and Yamoussoukro. A number of Dioula victims, witnesses, and women leaders told Human Rights Watch how they lived in fear of sexual and physical violence by the police, gendarmes, and other pro-government forces. One testimony from a Dioula woman who lived in Abidjan and who suffered physical and verbal sexual harassment, and possibly sexual abuse, illustrates this fear:.

Numerous rapes occurred during the government razing of " quartiers prcaires " or shantytowns, occupied by thousands of immigrants and "Dioula" Ivorians. The Red Cross estimated that between September 21 and 24, some 12, people were displaced from Dioula neighborhoods in Abidjan. Human Rights Watch and several other national and international organizations documented a clear pattern of women of West African origin being singled out for sexual abuse and harassment by pro-government forces. Sometimes the sexual abuse against West Africans occurred within the context of attacks on camps or neighborhoods, which were largely comprised of Malians or Burkinabs.

Other times these West African women were singled out from others riding public transportation by security forces manning a checkpoint. Human Rights Watch documented a range of crimes committed against Burkinab and Malian women ranging from vaginal fingering to gang rape. One local aid organization documented sexual violence against over Burkinab women and girls in government-held southwest Cote d'Ivoire at the height of the conflict in late and early , finding that they had been raped or sexually abused by armed men from various pro-government groups.

A representative of the organization told Human Rights Watch that many of the sexual attacks were committed within the context of body searches for hidden money, and that most of these women subsequently fled to Burkina Faso: []. One Burkinab woman told Human Rights Watch about the experience of her sisters' sexual abuse at the hands of pro-government forces in a southwestern community not far from the Liberian border.

After Gur militias and loyalists attacked and raped civilians in her community in the "hot times" of the war, two of her sisters aged 12 and 13 were gang raped by militiamen in , and she witnessed a gang rape by Loyalists:. Many cases of sexual abuse against women of West African origin involved the victim being strip searched, undressed, or vaginally searched in an apparent attempt to humiliate them.

An Abidjan-based humanitarian organization told Human Rights Watch about three cases of vaginal searches of Burkinab women at gendarme-run checkpoints in Abidjan between and One Muslim Ivorian woman discussed how she saw numerous women attacked by pro-government ethnic Bt militiamen in a predominantly Muslim market in Abidjan in the fall of , and recounted how women who were considered to be of foreign origin were stripped naked or partially undressed in acts of sexual humiliation.

In some cases, vaginal searches and sexual humiliations could be precursors to far worse forms of sexual abuse. For instance, a Malian woman who was singled out for sexual abuse in June described how a policeman accused her of being a rebel because of her Malian nationality, and then stripped, vaginally fingered, beat and vaginally and anally raped her at the southern road leading into the western town of Dukou:.

This policeman kept her in captivity for a night and a day, during which time he forced her to suck on his penis, beat her again, and repeated several times that she was "a friend of the rebels. Human Rights Watch documented three cases of rape and collected reports of many more rapes perpetrated by pro-government forces against women of Burkinab and Malian origin. A leader of an Ivorian humanitarian organization described to Human Rights Watch how she had counseled scores of cases of sexual violence against Malian and "Dioula" women the term Dioula is often used to refer not only to Ivorians but also to people of northern or foreign background.

She told Human Rights Watch that she believed the police routinely raped allogne foreign and Dioula women whom they detained for various reasons. For instance, she recalled a case in the early months of the armed conflict involving a middle-aged Malian woman who lived in a predominantly Muslim neighborhood of Abidjan. She described how she left the house in spite of a curfew to look for her son because she heard shots outside.

On the way she was taken in a car by 12 gendarmes along with two other women, and all were raped before being dropped off at the police station. The NGO leader, who had been alerted to that woman's detention, picked her up at the police station, where she found her disheveled and sobbing. The NGO leader described nine other cases involving victims of Burkinab, Malian or Dioula origin in comparable detail, and affirmed that she had documented many more cases.

A number of cases of sexual violence against West African and Dioula women took place during raids on predominantly Dioula neighborhoods by law enforcement officers. For instance, Malian consular officials documented a case in November in which two young Malian women were raped and one pregnant woman was so badly beaten that she miscarried during a violent raid in the Adjam neighborhood of Abidjan. The attack occurred during a government crackdown following a protest march by the RDR:. Even more serious were rapes or gang rapes accompanied by killings and torture. A businesswoman of Burkinab origin told Human Rights Watch how in late or early men dressed in government military uniforms and civilians of Baoul, Bt and Agni ethnicity attacked her and other foreigners, one of whom she saw raped and killed.

The incident took place on the way from Abidjan to Lom, Togo. Some cases of sexual violence against women originating from neighboring West African countries have taken place within the context of interethnic conflicts over land, particularly in the southwest. Indeed, southwestern Cote d'Ivoire remains beset by ethnic tensions and violence, characterized by armed gangs and militias attacking villages, destroying homes, schools, wells, and health centers, resulting in ongoing cycles of displacement. Foreign women of non-African descent were also singled out for politically motivated sexual violence.

Severalwhite women, most likely French, were raped during the anti-French riots and attacks that rocked Abidjan from November 6 to 12, These attacks followed a military crisis between Ivorian and French troops; in early November , Ivorian airplanes broke a ceasefire and bombarded a New Forces base at Bouak, killing numerous civilians and nine French soldiers. The French immediately responded by destroying all Ivorian military aircraft, which then ignited anti-French riots, large-scale violence in Abidjan, and the evacuation of 8, foreigners most of them French.

According to French military officials, several white women were raped; French General Henri Poncet, then commander of the Licorne operation French peacekeeping forces in Cote d'Ivoire , said "I confirm that there were rapesThere were exactions, tragedies for a number of women.

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I will not comment any more, out of respect. Even prior to the outbreak of hostilities, as early as , women in Cote d'Ivoire were targeted by pro-government forces for their affiliation-either actual or perceived-with the RDR opposition political party. In many cases these acts terrorized entire families and neighborhoods, perhaps in an effort to weaken their support for the opposition party.

Some women were raped and gang raped because of the political activities of a husband, father, brother, or other relative, even if they had never engaged in any form of political activism themselves. A previous wave of politically motivated sexual abuses against women affiliated with the opposition took place in , two years before the outbreak of active fighting. During the violence which accompanied the presidential and parliamentary elections, police, gendarmes, soldiers, and other pro-government forces committed many rapes and acts of sexual torture perpetrated against real or perceived RDR supporters.

Women were stripped naked, beaten, threatened with sexual assault, raped, gang raped, penetrated with objects, beaten in the genital area, or sexually humiliated. In spite of international outrage about the sexual abuse, these and other atrocities against RDR members and their families continued, reemerging in with the outbreak of war, and continuing throughout the conflict. From , women associated with the RDR were sexually abused by pro-government forces, at times against a backdrop of intimidation of RDR members in general. A United Nations Commission of Inquiry, [] which was mandated to investigate human rights abuses in Cote d'Ivoire from to , produced a hard hitting report that was suppressed at the United Nations and has not been published.

In a leaked version of this report, the Commission of Inquiry described a number of political assassinations of RDR leaders. A leading human rights group, the Ivorian Movement for Human Rights Mouvement Ivoirien des Droits de l'Homme documented approximately assassinations of RDR activists in the period following the rebellion alone.

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Human Rights Watch received numerous reports and documented seven cases from in which victims of sexual abuse appeared to have been targeted on account of their or a family member's affiliation with the RDR party. A woman whose family was active in the RDR described how Liberian mercenaries and Ivorian gendarmes gang raped her in front of her husband and then killed him, after accusing him of being a "traitor. According to the United Nations Commission of Inquiry, numerous RDR supporters were targeted at this time, during a massacre by pro-government forces in Daloa.

The rape survivor told Human Rights Watch that she saw many bodies of other people killed and that she believed other women had been raped as she was, because of their affiliation to the RDR or their perceived support for the rebels. Human Rights Watch documented two cases in which women whose in-laws were leaders in the RDR in Abidjan appeared to have been targeted for sexual abuse.

In both cases, one or more RDR supporters in their family were murdered. The first woman recounted to Human Rights Watch how she was illegally detained, jailed, and repeatedly gang raped in the beginning of the war by eight armed men in Abidjan whom she could not identify, and whom she believed werepunishing her because of her father-in-law's political activism with the RDR:. The second woman-whose father-in-law and two brothers-in-law were killed-was also detained in a similar clandestine, unofficial jail.

She described how she was attacked, beaten, kidnapped, incarcerated, and gang raped for three days while her husband was wounded and her small children left to fend for themselves. Several interviewees recounted how women were raped in RDR households and neighborhoods at the same time that men were taken to be killed. One woman who resided in an RDR stronghold in Abidjan described an attack on her house in late , shortly after Bouak was taken by rebels, during which pro-government forces in camouflage uniform detained and later "disappeared" her husband who was a politically active member of the RDR, raped several women, including one who was pregnant, and injured or killed a few neighbors:.

The sexual violence against relatives of higher ranking RDR members appeared designed to punish and terrorize entire families and communities, perhaps in an effort to weaken their support for the opposition party. Another survivor whose family was Muslim and some of whose relatives were of Malian origin described how her family was attacked by uniformed pro-government forces in Daloa in an effort to ascertain the whereabouts of their brother, an RDR activist.

During the attack, her older sister was gang raped by seven "Loyalists" and she herself was threatened with rape, beaten with a gun, and had her arm broken. Representatives from the RDR party, consular officials, and local and international NGOs told Human Rights Watch that they believed women and girls from groups perceived to support the rebels or political opposition were particularly vulnerable to sexual violence by security forces and their supporters during political crises.

It is fiercely loyal to the Gbagbo government. Diplomats, journalists, and human rights monitors told Human Rights Watch that in addition to sowing terror, FESCI has in effect become a 'mafia' that uses violence to control economic activity on the university campus, with absolute control over who receives campus accommodation and which merchants operate on campus, seemingly without any fear of being held accountable.

In previous reports, Human Rights Watch has documented how at the main university campus in Abidjan, FESCI engaged in frequent acts of harassment, intimidation, and violence against those student and other groups they believe support the opposition or New Forces. AGEE-CI members told Human Rights Watch that although they regularly report incidents of harassment and abuse to the police, so far no one has been prosecuted or punished for these crimes.

It is a rebel organization created in the rebel zone and seeking to spread its tentacles to the university. Several local human rights organizations told Human Rights Watch that they feared following up on and making public reports of sexual violence and other attacks on campus perpetrated by FESCI because of safety concerns. A leading local human rights organization documented the gang rape of another student active in the PDCI opposition party by two members of FESCI one of whom she could identify near her house in Abidjan shortly after she participated in an anti-government protest march on March 25, The NGO confirmed that there was no police or judicial follow-up for her case.

Three women students alleged to Human Rights Watch that they are frequently victims of sexual harassment and intimidation by FESCI, and believed numerous other women experienced similar threats and abuse. They explained that impunity for these attacks is fueled by FESCI's control over the distribution of dorm rooms in university housing. Interviewees also described how the most beautiful women students are especially at risk: "if you are really pretty and they want you, you have a hard time refusingthey can make a lot of problems for you," said one student who refused to give her name or age.

If she refuses to submit to them she is expelled from the residence and prevented from going on campus to attend her classes. When the group of women students was asked how they could contact the school administration for protection or how they could report such behavior for sanctions, the interviewees all laughed and one of them told Human Rights Watch, "You are dreaming!

The university will do nothing. A teacher's face was disfigured in a FESCI attack, prompting his colleagues to halt work for two weeks. The protracted nature of the Ivorian political-military crisis has appeared to increase girls' and women's vulnerability to various forms of sexual violence and exploitation including non-conflict-related rape, prostitution of children, sexual abuse by teachers, forced and early marriage, and domestic violence.

Many women and girls described being driven to commercial sex work or locked into abusive relationships as a result of the increased poverty caused by the conflict. Rates of rape where perpetrators are unknown and appear to be civilians or simply armed men without overt government or rebel affiliation are reportedly high. Many cases of sexual assault and exploitation appear to have been facilitated by the breakdown of the legal system, proliferation of arms, and general climate of impunity. Displacement and poverty caused by the conflict have fueled a major increase in prostitution, sexual exploitation, and sexual abuse of women and children in Cote d'Ivoire.

The war is estimated to have displaced an estimated 1. Internally displaced persons appeared to be particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse. With economic growth rates averaging around 7 percent for the first 20 years of independence, Cote d'Ivoire was the envy of countries throughout the developing world.

An adolescent who was 11 when the war started recounted how, after becoming separated from her family during the war, she became dependent on a man who eventually became her "husband. Representatives of national and international humanitarian organizations unanimously agreed that there is a dramatic rise in survival sex and sexual exploitation, which they believed to be a direct result of poverty and mass displacement.

Others are given clothing, cell phones, perfume or watches. An OCHA representative based in the western town of Man described how some women and girls sold their bodies for as little as one meal: "Women and teenagers will spend the night with a man for a plate of atchk [a cassava-based staple]. Nearly all survivors of sexual violence interviewed by Human Rights Watch described their feelings of profound anxiety, shame, anger, depression, and fear. Three women told Human Rights Watch that they regularly contemplated suicide.

Others described frequent psychosomatic problems like headaches, insomnia, and nightmares. Many remained with serious and at times debilitating physical impairments they suffered as a consequence of the sexual attack. Human Rights Watch interviewed women who had been so violently raped that for months following their ordeal, they were unable to walk. For others, even sitting and bending to do routine housework caused extreme pain.

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Women routinely complained of bleeding, aches in their abdomens, and burning pain when they urinated or tried to have sex with their partners. Doctors and other medical workers described having treated many survivors whose genital and reproductive tissue had been torn and damaged or who had suffered miscarriages or difficulties giving birth on account of the sexual attack they had endured.

Others suffered from botched illegal abortions they sought out after having become pregnant following their ordeal. Free download.